For nearly a decade, Ice Tethered Profilers (ITP) have been deployed to observe the physics and biology of the changing Actic environment ranging from ice floes to regional lakes providing observations covering a large region of the Arctic Ocean.
More recently, in the summer of 2012, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) scientists took part in an international expedition aboard the German Research Vessel Polarstern to study the Arctic Sea. Researchers observed that the ecosystem of the Arctic Sea is rapidly affected by increasing temperatures. The findings were reported in the March 2013 issue of Science. NIOZ has completed previous collaborative expeditions in the Arctic aboard the R/V Polarstern with three ITPs that collected data several times daily and transmitted to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) via Iridium Satellite to study thick multi-year sea ice.